207. Inceptive verbs, often called the fourth class of the irregular verbs, are a few verbs ending in -cer and -cir preceded by a vowel. These verbs, although otherwise regular, have a k-sound (written c) inserted before endings beginning with o or a. Here belong: conocer, ‘ to know,’ and crecer, ‘ to grow.’ Learn their conjugation in 468.

208. Conocer and saber. Conocer and saber may both be translated by the English, ‘ to know.’ Conocer means ‘ to perceive,’ ‘ to be acquainted with,’ ‘ to become acquainted with,’ while saber means ‘ to know’ a thing or branch of learning by acquired knowledge or understanding.

Conozco a ese hombre bien y sé que es honrado.
I know that man well and I know he is honest.

El niño sabe ya leer en inglés. The child knows how to read English already.

¿No conoce usted ese país? Do you not know that country?

No sabe lo que dice. He does not know what he says.

No conozco bien el camino,

pero sé que pasa por allá. I do not know the road well, but I know it passes through there.

209. Formation of Adverbs. Adverbs may be formed in Spanish by adding -mente to the feminine form of practically any adjective.

rápido rápidamente, rapidly

holgazán holgazanamente, lazily

traidor traidoramente, treacherously

bonito bonitamente, prettily

feliz felizmente, happily

fácil fácilmente, easily

If the adjective has a written accent the adverb retains it.

a. Adverbial phrases are very common in Spanish, and often become necessary if -mente with the adjective makes a compound disagreeable to the Spanish ear.

prudentemente = de una manera prudente, con prudencia, prudently.

b. Adjectives are frequently used in Spanish with adverbial force.

Vivieron felices. They lived happily.

210. Position of Adverbs. Before the adjective and after the verb is the ordinary position of adverbs.

Habla bien. She speaks well.

Es horriblemente feo. He is horribly ugly.

a. When the verb has an object, the ordinary position of the adverb is also immediately after the verb, but for greater emphasis it may come after the object.

Habla bien el español.

Habla el español bien. } He speaks Spanish well.

211. Learn the indicative tenses of the radical-changing verbs jugar, ‘ to play,’ reír, ‘ to laugh,’ sonreír, ‘ to smile,’

via Spanish Inceptive Verbs. Adverbs.

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