In this online Spanish lesson, you will learn how to express conditions in Spanish. Like in English, we have different ways to express a condition in Spanish depending on the idea and the time of that idea. This is why we have 3 different conditional structures.

Structure number 1 is called “Conditional Real”, what is used always with the Indicative, but in the second part you can use the Imperative.

Si + Present + Present/Future/Imperative

Si llueve, el césped se moja. (If it rains, the grass gets wet)

Si llueve, no saldré a la calle. (If it rains, I won´t to go into the street)

Si llueve, vayan a la fiesta con el auto. (If it rains, go to the party with the car)

Structure number 2 (Second Conditional) is used with Imperfect Subjunctive and Conditional.

Si + Imperfect Subjunctive + Conditional

Firstly, we can use it when we want to put ourselves in the place of another person:

Si yo fuera tú, trabajaría menos horas y disfrutaría más de mis hijos. (If I were you, I would work fewer hours and I would enjoy my children more)

Si yo fuera Lionel Messi, jugaría bien al fútbol y tendría mucho dinero. (If I were Lionel Messi, I would play soccer well and I would have a lot of money)

Secondly, it is used to pose hypothetical situations in a not real present:

Si estas paredes hablaran, tendrían muchas cosas para contar. (If these walls could talk, they would have many things to say.)

Si todos saltáramos al mismo tiempo, del otro lado del mundo se despertarían. (If all of us would jump at the same time, the people on the other side of the world would wake up)

Structure number 3 is called ” Conditional Impossible”. We use it when we want to change something in the past with the objective of showing how it could have been different. In this structure we use Pluperfect Subjunctive and Conditional Composite.

Si + Pluperfect Subjunctive + Conditional Composite/ Pluperfect Subjunctive

Si no hubiera bajado del auto para tomar fotos de los leones, ellos no habrían querido atacarme. (If I had not got down from the car to take pictures of the lions, they would not have wanted to attack me)

Si no hubiera tomado café mientras trabajaba con la computadora, no habría volcado el café en el teclado. (If I had not had coffee while working on the computer, I wouldn’t of spilled coffee on the keyboard.)

You can use Conditional Simple to talk about what would have been in the present if you would/wouldn’t of done something in the past.

Si no hubiera tomado café mientras trabajaba con la computadora, la computadora no estaría rota ahora. (If I had not had coffee while working on the computer, the computer would not be broken now)

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via Learning Spanish Reviews Blog » How to Express a Condition in Spanish.

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